17.1.-14.2.1797

Sender

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Sender’s Location

Malta, Palermo og Napoli

Recipient

Bertel Thorvaldsen

Recipient’s Location

Malta, Palermo og Napoli

Dating based on

Dateringen fremgår af dagbogen, dog er den første dato 16.1.1797 ikke korrekt. Den første dag skal være den 17.1.1797, se kommentaren hertil.

Abstract

Thorvaldsen’s diary from his sojourn in Malta, Palermo and Naples.

Document

MaltaI

Den
16 Janua:II
Om ettermiddagen Kl 5 tog ieg fra fregattenIII som gek tilIV fra Malta til TripoligV. Det smertede mig at side i baaden og see den gaa fra mig[.] ieg havde unt vedVI at skiule min graad for vis KunselenVII som sad i badenVIII tilligge med PilottenIX og en anden som ieg ikke kiende
Ieg kom i land og Pilotten viste mig til min kabetenX for SperonarenXI som jeg skal gaae med[.] Han kom strax iem, Han vilde trøste mig da han saa ieg hvar bedrøvet og sagte non forsXII[.] ieg spiste hos til aften og siden viste han mig vor ieg skulde ligge som var Ret
17XIII Got[.] ieg latte mig og falt endeliggen [i] sønv[.] min vert kom og vonnedeXIV mig og HegtorXV[.] Han faunede mig og kyste mig ieg gek ud og kom til Speronaren for at tage Nogget Rent paaXVI og gek derfra til den danske brikXVII for at tale med kabethennen men han var ikke ombord[.] ieg kekXVIII iem og paa Veien var Hegtor lysti og giode iatXIX paa nogle geder som spran omkreng og Rev en pige om som havde et barn paa armen men det fek ikke noget skade[,] siden Rev den en Dreng overende som man lo af
18XX i Dag sov ieg saae lenge som mulig for at giøre Dagen kort[.] ieg gek ned til Speron[aren] og derfra til brigen og traf kabethenen i land[.] Han sagt[e] der var kommen en Dansk brikXXI i gardXXII[.] Han bad mig o[m] ieg vilde følge med[.] Han vild[e] tale med kabitheænenXXIII ieg lod mig sette over men han var taget i land [h]vor vi traf ham paa tolbuden[.] Det lod til at verre en skegelligXXIV man den for løbende TyskerXXV var alle Rede hos ham[.] Vi gek samen til et kaffe hus og drak en kop soggeladeXXVI de gek derfra til et belleardXXVII vor ieg gek fra dem og gek til frangsuaXXVIII og Røgede en pibe dabakXXIX og gek iem og spiste til megdag[.] i efter mida[g] bliver ieg enXXX for det ser ud til got ver[.] Der belv ikke noget af i aften men i morgenXXXI sagte han det skulde blivet for det klarede op i den ende vor han vilde havet det.
[23.2.] MandagenXXXII den 23 om Eftermedagen Kl 18 og en Halv slet kom speronaren til Palermo ieg gek i land og viste mit Pas og gek derfra letXXXIII om i byen til det blev mø[r]k[t] og til Fartøet og sov
24 om morgennen gek Cabe[thenen] og ieg til Mathe en bankeørXXXIV som ieg havde et brev til fra konsulen i MaltaXXXV[.] ieg blev vel modtaget Han bad en af sinne fulmegtig at gaa med mig som viste mig til en komesonnerXXXVI med en stor nese vel beprydet paa i kaffe hus[,] ieg gek derfra med ham til viskonsulen som ieg havde brevXXXVII til[.] Han gav mig atest til at faae pas og Lak paa som koste 2 Tanai[.] Han viste mig sin søn[.] Han lovede mig at vise mig omk[ri]ng[.] om morgennen skal vi treffe verander hos Mathe
25 om morgennen kom ieg efter avtale og han kom siden Ef[t]er[.] Han og fulmetegenXXXVIII gek med mig til en palas som der var nole malerrier men da hans broder var i Napoli og havde nø[g]len til et Galeri [h]vor der var en del malerrier af RubenXXXIX[.] vi[?] gek derfra i do[m]kerke[n.]XL iegXLI var nylig malet af en Cecilian sesellianerXLII som hed Vincenzo MannoXLIII[.] Han hafde malet blafonggenXLIV som var Ret smuk Der var ogsaa ande gode malerrier og en munome[n]tXLV som [var] got[.] Vi gek derfra til Manno det var [en] arti mand og saae hans male[rier] en bedende MadelonaXLVI som var Ret god, det kom paa tale om academietXLVII som han lovede mig ieg skulde faae se i aften
ieg kom da som han klæde sig paa Han hafde hel krigers udeformXLVIII paa som han var bleven given af stor MessterenXLIX for det han havde malet en KerkeL[.] Han gek med os til Academiet som bestod i 3 Claser ieg saa Modellen som ikke var god ieg gek derfra til baaden
26 om morgenen gek ieg ud og traf min tolk hos Mathe vi gek med den ChevallerLI som er kommen fra Malta til liggeLII med mig og spasere[,] vi kom til kaderdal kirkenLIII som er under arbeide[.] saa tilligge en billethugger versted[,] der stoed nole figure som var ferdi voraf ieg saae kun en som var meget slet, ieg kom omkreng i ander kerkeLIV[.] om aftenen paa orbraLV som var got der var 2 a 3 som sang fortreflig
27 i Dag kom ieg i den store gade og traf den som gaar om med mig[.] Han fortalte mig at ieg kom til at Reise i Daeg som gledede mig meget[.] vi gek der fra og til Manno og bad ham om der var noget han vilde Rekoma[n]dere mig at see som han lovede mig[.] ieg kom til ham om eftermedagen og i steden for at vise mig om[,] gav han mig en Rekomedasion til hans broderLVI som var nok saa got. i aften skal jeg lig[g]e paa PakettenLVII som skal gaae[.] om aftennen kom ieg med stor beservLVIII ombord der var en vremelLIX af paseserLX saa dersom ieg [ikke] hafde den gode mand saa havde ieg ikke kommet ombord[.] der var saadan støi saa ieg kunde ikke forstaa et ord deraf[.] ieg kom og fek mit tøig la[g]t ned i larsten til en oppasser og ladeLXI i hans kiøie[?] vi kom ikke til at seile herfra[?] i Nat[,] ieg var saa keed af den svermLXII
Den 28
løverdagLXIII
gek Paketten om moggennen Kl 7 tillige med den Niapolitanske Fregat som skulde CovoiereLXIV den for tørgerneLXV[.] Det var got Ver[,] da vi kom udenfor nole mile fra Palermo blev VendenLXVI ContrerigLXVII og fergaten og et stort skib gav senalLXVIII til at vende om men kabetenen sinalLXIX der paa[,] mens som de stod og talede belvLXX VendenLXXI bedre. ieg har her den besste leiglihed til at tengeLXXII paa fregatten ThetisLXXIII[.] Her paa den niapolitanske ved siden af Paketten der staar ieg og errendre min forrige Reise
[29.1.LXXIV] den anden dag vilde di see Napoli da de var kund en 80 mile derfra
[30.1.LXXV] om mogenen kunde vi see land og det got og inden aften tenger ieg vi kommer til Napoli[.] ieg begynder at finde mig bedre i dette komersLXXVI en[d] som før[.] der er nogle smuke FrutømmerLXXVII og den smugesteLXXVIII taler tyskLXXIX. Der er børn gamle kellinger og andre saadane go[d]s[.] man siger ieg skal betale for min hund som knap kan faae saa meget plas hand kan ligge paa for bare pasiegereLXXX de er stuede i lasten som salte sielLXXXI
Kl 10 kaste de anker paa Napoli Reed
[31.1.] om onsdagen den 1 februariusLXXXII stoed ieg og keldeLXXXIII mig paa Kl 7[,] der var lige saadanne mas med at komme i land som der var at komme ombord, ieg gek i lan og der kom en og sporte mig om ieg vilde have nogen tiener men vortil ieg svarede nei[,] men bad han velde vise mig til alla piazsa FranceseLXXXIV som han og gord men han sagte mig han vilde vise mig et bedre[,] dette var fatti det saa det og ud til[.] vi gek i ma[n]ge gader og kom til et traterhusLXXXV [h]vor han akoderedeLXXXVI for 4 ka[r]olinerLXXXVII om daggen[,] 2 for at sove og 2 for at spise[,] ieg var tilfres at ieg haft Noget at spise da jeg var saa sulden som nogen kan vere
nu kom der bued op til mig om ieg vilde spise[,] ieg gek da ned og der saed en hel hoben folk offersereLXXXVIII og prester det var meget slet og svinsk[.] min hund spiser det messte[?] [h]vor sulden ieg var[,] skal dette vere de besste saa Gud ielpe de daalige[.] ieg tør snart ikke gaa ud for ieg er bange for ieg ikke skal finde iemLXXXIX igen
endeligen vovede ieg at gaa ud og tog mine merke paa husset og paa gaderne som ieg gek igennem og saae paae veien en kirke og ærreportXC met en smuk bafungXCI[.] ieg gek til baketeXCII for at faae mit tøeg. Da ieg kom ombord og vilde [hente det?] blev der fordret paa en udbeskeden madeXCIII 12 Caroliner som ieg betalte[.] Der stod en baaed ved skibet som skulde fersentereXCIV og saa der var bøge[r.] Det skulde vesetXCV i land [h]vor de blev taget fra mig, og skudeXCVI formodellig lessetXCVII igennem for at se om der ikke var nole aristokradigske bøggerXCVIII iblant[.] ieg blev meget fortrydelig der over da det var slet Veir[,] i morgen skulde ieg faa dem igen
[1.2.] Den 1e Feeb.XCIX klede ieg mig paae for at gaae til MinisterrenC ieg gek fø[r]st [til] fesentirenCI for at faa mine bøger men han sagte ieg fek dem ikke førren paa Mandag[.] ieg gek derfra til miit logije for at faa en til at vise mig vej[?]CII hvor[?] ieg fek en gammel kelling som heller ikke visste vor det var men sporde sig for hos en glashanler[.] Han kunde talle Tysk som ieg tro at alle Glas Hanler kan[.] Han visst ikke heller Ret [h]vor det var[.] den gamle kellenCIII maatte da spørge sig for[.] inden ieg kom til Minist. havde ieg tre og nole damer[?]CIV som skulde vise mig til huset[.] ieg kom til ham og thyskede medCV en tienner som satteCVI han spiste[.] ieg vilde nødi gaa med uforrette[t sag] tilbage men bad han vilde melde mig som han og giodeCVII
Ministerren kom ud og talte mig til paa franks som ieg sva[r]te paa dansk som han snatCVIII havde glemt[.] ieg gav ham brevet og fortalte ham vorledes det var gaaet mig ved tolbuden med mine bøger[.] Han satteCIX det var gaaet ham ligge saa danne med en kalender som havde ligget i 6 Maaneder[.] ieg sagte vilde de beholde mine saa lenge saa kom de til at beholde dem
Han bad mig ieg vilde give ham en forteinelseCX paa dem saa sku[l]de han skafe dem[.] Han unskyld[t]e han ikke kunne talle med mig lengerre da han hav[d]e den fornøielse at talle med mig i overmorgen om ieg vilde spise hos ham til midag, gek derfra tilbage igennem den storre aleCXI [h]vor der stod en grupe af marmurCXII[.] ieg gek iem og Røgede mig en pibe tobak og vilde gaa paa obraCXIII[.] ieg gek til Glar Hanleren og bad han vilde vise mig [h]vor komedi husset var[.] Han sagte der ikke blev spilt paa det store førren at prinsessenCXIV kom til Napolis og da skulde der vere stor stas[.] ieg kom paa til komed huset og fek en beletCXV for 4 karolin[.] Det var Ret smuk at høre den sang som ieg hørte[?] Her er fortreffellig men ieg lengdes for at komme iem da klokn den var mange[.] da det var forbi løb ieg iem og traf dem oppe[.] Det glede mig meget[,] det kunde havet veret stor uleilihed for mig at faa et andet loci saa sedigCXVI[.] Da ieg kom iem fek ieg let at spise
den
2 febr.
ieg gek omkreng og saa en del kergerCXVII og huse he[r] og fant Heliodorus som Røvede Skatkameret i JulesalemCXVIII
3 Spiste ieg hos Ministeren og giorde bekenskab med profess[or] TischeinCXIX og Gre[ve] …CXX og som bad mig komme til sig i morg[en] saa vilde hanCXXI vise mig om
4 ieg kom om morgennen og traf ham ikke iemme men en af hans skolareCXXII som ogsaa talede Tysk[.] ieg saa hans maler[i]er og en del af hans teiningger som var Ret gotCXXIII[.] Han kom iem og han bad en vilde vise mig om i alli StudiCXXIV[.]
ieg kom fort enCXXV i billehuger Versted som der var mange smuge te[n]g[?] ieg [saa] en kopi der[?] og andre store figure af marmur[.] ieg gek derfra hen paa et andet sted [h]vor der var mange antigerCXXVI den store HerkulesCXXVII med mange flere[.] det var saa kolt at ieg ikke kunde opholde mig lenge men i morgen tager ieg min kaveiCXXVIII med[.] Naar det bliver opsatCXXIX saa velCXXX det ikke have sin mage i hele verden[.]
i eftermidag gek ieg ud og spasere og traf den KiømandCXXXI[?] som bad mig enCXXXII i sin butik[.] Han bad mig spise hos sig i morgen til midag[.] Han vilde komme til mig i mogen tilig og spasere med mig og vise mig omkreng[.] ieg gek derfra og letCXXXIII om i gaderne[,] der kom en tysk offeser og talte med mig og sagte mig askillig om Huse og Palas[.] pa[a] Veien kom en Dreng og spurte mig om ieg vilde have nole smuge pigerCXXXIV[.] ieg spudeCXXXV tyskeren vad han sagte og han gav ham en paa øret
[5.2.] i Dag kom den tyske Gla[s] Han[ler] til mig og vi gek ud samen og saa en del kerker og den kerke med de ma[n]ge marmurfigur og kaderdalkrigenCXXXVI og derfra iem og spiste[.] Vi gek sammen ud paa landet og saa en del af deg figurre som er opgravet paa lyst slotetCXXXVII[.] ieg saae de to RedenCXXXVIII figure som er fortrefellig[.] Vi gek sammen iem og der var ellemenasonCXXXIX for den kesserlige prinsesse[s]CXL nekomstCXLI
[6.2.] i Dag gek ieg til ministerenCXLII for at se bellegallerietCXLIII men traf ham ikke iemme[.] ieg gek derfra og til tolbuden for at faa mine bøge[r] som ieg og fek og derfra til Tischbey[n] og han var gaaet ud med menesteCXLIV til Galler ReretCXLV[,] ieg bad at en vilde følge med mig[.] ieg kom til jost som de gek og fek ikke meget at see Der blev tal[t] med hamCXLVI som viser fo[l]k om[,] at han vilde vise mig en anden Dag som han lovede[.] ieg gek derfra til alli studiCXLVII og saa antiggerne genem og derfra iem[.]
ieg gek paa orbraCXLVIII de havde den samme som de spilde sentCXLIX
7. i Dag saa ieg Capo di MonteCL og Hr AndreCLI var saa god og viste mig omkreng[.] det var fortrefellig di mange skiøn sager der var af Malerier af RafelCLII og andre store mestere og af etrusigske Vaser mønter og mosaiek[.] Det var skade at ieg maatte løbe det saa snartCLIII igennem men ieg vil gaa en anden dag
8 [i] Dag Gek ieg omkreng og saa en del kerger og spiste hos ministeren [...] iemme og maatte tale Italiensk
9 i Dag var ieg hos Thisbein og gek derfra til kabo de Monte og saa Gallerriet bedre igenem og spiste hos AndreaCLIV som er en fortreffellig Mand og om eftermedagen op paa Gallerriet og derfra spasere i haven og saae MinasarietCLV
[12.2.] søndagenCLVI den 12 spiste ieg til medag hos glashanlerenCLVII
13 Var ieg paa frabrigenCLVIII som var smutCLIX[.] Der stod mange antiger og en stor grubeCLX som forrestillede Jopeter som derver kenpperneCLXI af PostilinCLXII som var ret smuk
[14.2.] Den 14CLXIII formidag var ieg hos konsulenCLXIV som er en tysker og en Libhaber af konstenCLXV
[her skrevet mellem linierne med anden blæk:] MandagenCLXVI den 14 Februa:
og traf der en koberstekkerCLXVII som som var temlig god
  i daCLXVIII spist hos ministerenCLXIX



[under de sidste linjer to utydelige linjer med blyant:]
Trattoria delle guardavi[?]
S. [xxxxx] delle Piose[?]

[Herunder en boglisteCLXX]
1 stamgebogCLXXI
En Italiens og Tysk lexsikon
En ditto Tysk og Italien
En Italiæns gramadicaCLXXII
1 fransk ditto
2 tomer af Krebel Reisebeskri[velse]CLXXIII
Bagesen labyrint 2 tomCLXXIV
stærk aadeCLXXV
ildegerteCLXXVI
2 bøgerCLXXVII
1 manu[skript]CLXXVIII
nole breveCLXXIX

[Dagbogen rummer herefter flere tegnede figurstudier, antagelig efter malerier. På p. 15 nogle løsrevne fragmenter:]
Dem som kom til Rom for medels[t][?]
saa var det gaelt[?]CLXXX
men der [s]kal altid

[På dagbogens sidste side en svært læselig listeCLXXXI med navne]
Lantone[?] MedinaCLXXXII
Geist[?]CLXXXIII bygninger il douduomoCLXXXIV

Cadedral[?] Kirken il TojoroCLXXXV
[xxxla] med kirgen[?] hellig[?]
en marmur obellisk JannuariCLXXXVI
S. Domenico SorianoCLXXXVII
La Gesu[?] NuovoCLXXXVIII
[dx xx xxxfaldigxed bxxxx]
al Gesu vecchioCLXXXIX[?] S Giovanni / a CarbonaraCXC
della Salute da Pauliner[?] kirke[?]CXCI
Santta Maria dell’ AnnonciadaCXCII
S. ChiaraCXCIII S. GiuseppeCXCIV S GaetanoCXCV[?]
Sa Maria del CarminiCXCVI
S Gennaro di CimetreoCXCVII

Oversættelse af dokument

Malta

January
16th
In the afternoon at 5pm I left the frigate which went from Malta to Tripoli. It gave me pain to sit in the boat watching it leave me. It was difficult for me to conceal my tears from the vice-consul who sat in the boat together with the pilot and another person whom I did not know.
I got ashore and the pilot directed me to the captain of the speronaro which I am to go by. He came home at once. He wanted to comfort me when he saw how sad I was and said non fors. I had dinner with him and afterwards he showed me where I was to sleep which was very good.
17th I lay down and fell asleep at last. My host came and woke me and Hector. He hugged me and kissed me, I left and came to the speronaro to put on clean clothes and from there I went to the Danish brig to speak to the captain, but he was not onboard. I went home and on the way Hector was gay and chased some goats which jumped around and upset a girl who was carrying a child in her arms but it was not hurt. Later he swept a boy off his feet, which people laughed at.
18th Today I slept as long as possible to make the day short. I went down to the speronaro and from there to the brig and met the captain ashore. He told me that a Danish brig had arrived yesterday. He asked me to accompany him. He wanted to speak to the captain, I crossed over but he had gone ashore where we met him at the customs house. He seemed to be a harmless person, the runaway German was already with him. We went together to a coffee house and had a cup of chocolate, they left for a billiard room where I left them and went to François and smoked a pipe of tobacco and went home and had dinner. This afternoon I shall stay in as it looks as if the weather is going to be fine. Nothing came of tonight, but it will be tomorrow, he said, for it cleared up where he wanted it to.
[23.2.] On Monday the 23rd in the afternoon at half past six the speronaro arrived at Palermo, I went ashore and showed my passport and then went a little about town till it grew dark and I went to the boat and slept.
24th In the morning the captain and I went to Mathe, a banker for whom I had a letter from the consul in Malta. I was well received. He asked a head clerk to accompany me, who directed me to a commission agent with a big nose well graced in a coffee house, I went from there with him to the vice-consul for whom I had a letter. He gave me a certification to obtain a passport with sealing wax which cost 2 Tanai. He showed me his son. He promised to show me round. In the morning we are to meet at Mathe’s.
25th In the morning I came as arranged and he came soon after. He and the head clerk accompanied me to a palace in which there were some paintings, but as his brother was in Naples and he had the key to a gallery where there were quite a number of paintings by Rubens we left and went to the cathedral. I had recently been painted by a Sicilian named Vincenzo Manno. He had painted the ceiling painting which was rather beautiful. There were more good paintings and a monument which was good. We went from there to Manno who was a worthy fellow and saw his paintings a praying Magdalene which was rather good. We talked about the Academy which he promised to show me tonight. I came when he was dressing. He was wearing an entire warrior’s uniform which had been given to him by the Grand Master because he had painted a church. He went with us to the Academy which consisted of 3 classes. I saw the model which was not good and I went from there to the boat.
26th In the morning I went out and met my interpreter at Mathe’s, we took a walk with the knight who came from Malta together with me, we came to the cathedral church which is being worked at. Besides I saw a sculptor’s studio, there were some figures which had been finished of which only one was rather bad, I saw another church. In the evening I visited the opera which was good, there were 2 or 3 who sang excellently.
27th Today I went to the big street and met the person who is taking me round. He told me that I would leave today which pleased me immensely. We went from there to Manno and asked him if there was anything he would recommend me to see as he had promised. I came to him in the afternoon and instead of showing me round he gave me a letter of recommendation to his brother which was good enough. Tonight I am going to sleep on the packet boat which is leaving. In the evening I went onboard with great difficulty; there was a crowd of passengers so if I had not been with the kind man I should not have been able to embark. There was so much noise that I could not understand a word. I had all my clothes put down in the hold to a servant and lay in his bunk, we did not leave this place tonight. I was so tired of this crowd.
28th
Saturday
The packet boat left in the morning at 7 as well as the small Neapolitan frigate which was to convoy it against the Turks. The weather was nice, when we came outside some miles from Palermo the wind became contrary and the frigate and a large ship gave signal to turn back but the captain then signalled, while they were speaking the wind got better. Here I have the best opportunity to think of the frigate Thetis. Here on the Neapolitanian beside the packet boat I am recollecting my former voyage.
[29.1.] On the second day they wanted to see Naples when they were only 80 miles from it.
[30.1.] In the morning we could see land very well and before evening I think we shall arrive at Naples. I begin to feel better at the noisy behaviour than before. There are some beautiful women and the most beautiful speaks German. There are children, old crones and other cargo. They say I must pay for my dog which can hardly get enough room to lie down because of passengers who are packed in the hold like sardines in a tin. At 10 o’clock they dropped the anchor in the roads of Naples.
[31.1] On Wednesday 1st of February I was dressing at 7, there were just as many troubles getting ashore as there had been embarking. I went ashore and somebody asked me if I wanted a servant to which my answer was negative, but I asked him if he could show me the way to alla piazza Francese which he did, but he told me that he would show me a better one, this one seemed to be poor. We went through many streets and came to a modest inn where he arranged a price of 4 carlinos a day, 2 for sleeping and 2 for meals, I was pleased to get something to eat as I was famished.
Now I received a message if I would like to eat. Then I went down and a whole crowd of officers and priests was sitting there, it was rather bad and filthy. My dog ate most of it. Very hungry as I was if this is the best then God help the bad ones. I hardly dare go out as I am afraid I shan’t be able to find my way back again. Finally I risked going out and took notice of the house and the streets which I went through and saw a church on my way and a triumphal arch with a beautiful ceiling painting. I went to the packet boat to get my clothes. When I came on board and wanted to fetch them, the people made a claim of 12 carlinos in a pushing way which I paid. There was a boat at the ship, which was to take care of the customs clearance, they saw there were books. They were to be cleared ashore where they were taken from me, and were probably to be read through to see if there weren’t any aristocratic books among them. I was most annoyed about this as the weather was bad, I was to get them back tomorrow.
[1.2.] February 1st I dressed to go to the minister. At first I went to the customs official to get my books, but he said I would not get them until Monday. From there I went to my lodgings to get somebody to show me the way, when I found an old woman, who did not know where it was, either, but who asked at a glass dealer’s. He could speak German which I think all glass dealers can. He did not know either where it was. The old woman then had to inquire. Before I came to the minister I had three guides and some women who were to guide me to the house. I came to him and spoke German to a servant who said he was having dinner, I was reluctant to leave without success and asked him to announce me, which he did. The minister came and spoke to me in French which I answered in Danish which he had almost forgotten. I gave him the letter and told him what I had experienced at the customs house with my books. He said he had experienced the same with a calendar which had lain there for 6 months. I said that if they wanted to keep mine as long as that they could keep them. He asked me to give him a list of them, then he would procure them. He excused that he could not speak to me any longer as he would have the pleasure to speak to me the day after tomorrow if I would come to dine with him; went from there back through the grand avenue where there was a group made of marble. I went home and smoked a pipe of tobacco and wanted to go to the opera. I went to the glass dealer and asked him to show me where the playhouse was. He said that there would be no plays at the big house until the princess came to Naples and then there would be great doings. I came to the playhouse and got a ticket for 4 carlinos. It was beautiful to listen to the song I listened to. It is excellent here, but I longed to get home as it was late. When it was over I ran home and found them up. I was very pleased, it would have been great troubles for me to get other lodgings so late. When I came home I got something to eat.
Feb. 2nd I went about and saw quite a number of churches and houses here and found Heliodorus who plundered the treasury in Jerusalem.
3rd Had dinner at the minister’s and made the acquaintance of professor Tischbein and count …. and he (Tischbein) asked me to come to him tomorrow then he would show me round.
4th I came in the morning and did not fin him in, but one of his students who also spoke German. I saw his paintings and some of his drawings, they were rather good. He came home and he asked somebody to show me round in Palazzo degli Studi. I was taken into a sculptor’s studio in which there were many antique sculptures, the big Hercules with many others. It was so cold that I could not stay there long but tomorrow I will bring my greatcoat. When this has been set up it will be unequalled in all the world. This afternoon I took a walk and met the merchant who asked me into his shop. He asked me to dine with him in his home tomorrow. He would come and meet me early tomorrow morning and walk with me to show me round. I left and went about the streets a little, a German officer came and talked to me and told me a lot about the houses and the palace. On our way a boy came and asked me if I wanted some beautiful girls. I asked the German what he said and he slapped him on his ears.
[5.2.] Today the German glass dealer came and we went together and saw some churches and the church with many marbles and the cathedral church and from there we went home to eat. Together we went out into the country and saw many of the figures which have been dug up at the country seat. I saw the two riding figures which are excellent. We went home together and there were illuminations because of the arrival of the imperial princess.
[6.2.] Today I went to the minister to see the picture gallery but did not find him at home. I went from there to the customs house to get my books which I did receive and from there to Tischbein and he had left with the minister for the gallery. I asked if someone would accompany me. I came just as they left and did not see much. We talked to the person who shows people round and asked if he would show me round some other day, which he promised. I went from there to Palazzo degli Studi and looked through the antiques and from there home. I went to the opera, the same one was on which they played last time.
7th Today I saw Capodimonte and Mr Andre was so kind as to show me round. They were excellent the many beautiful objects, there were paintings by Raphael and other great masters and Etruscan vases, coins and mosaics. It was a pity I had to run through so quickly but I shall go back another day.
8th Today I walked about and saw some churches and dined with the minister at home and had to speak Italian.
9th Today I went to see Tischbein and from there went to Capodimonte and looked better through the gallery and dined at Andrea’s who is an excellent person and in the afternoon i went to the gallery and from there walked in the garden and saw the menagerie.
[12.2.] On Sunday 12th I had dinner at the glass dealer’s.
13th I was at the factory which was beautiful. There were many antiques and a large group which represented Jupiter killing the giants made of porcelain which was rather beautiful.
[14.2.] On the 14th in the morning I went to the consul who is German and an art-lover. [here written between the lines and in a different type of ink:] Monday, February 14th: and there met a copperplate engraver who was very good.
Today I dined at the minister’s.



[below the last lines are two difficult lines in pencil:]
Trattoria delle guardavi(?)
S.(xxxxx) delle Piose (?)

[below here a book list]
1 album
An Italian – German dictionary
The same German – Italian
An Italian grammar
The same French
2 volumes of Krebel’s travel books
Baggesen: The Labyrinth 2 volumes
Staerkodder
Ildegerte
2 books
1 manuscript
Some letters

[the diary then contains several figure sketches probably from paintings. On p. 15 some detached fragments:]
Those who came to Rome because of [?]
Then it was wrong [?]
But there will always

[On the last page of the diary a list of names which is difficult to read]
Lantone [?] Medina
Geist [?] buildings il douduomo

Cathedral [?] the church il Tojoro
[xxxla] with the church [?] sacred [?]
A marble obelisk January
S. Domenico Soriano
La Gesu[?] Nuovo
[dx xx xxxfaldigxed bxxx]
Al Gesu Vecchio [?] S Giovanni/aCarbonara
della Salute da Pauliner [?] church [?]
Santa Maria dell’ Annunziata
S. Chiara S. Giuseppe S. Gaetana [?]
Santa Maria del Carmini
S. Gennaro di Cimetreo



[Translated by Karen Husum]

General Comment

This is the diary Thorvaldsen wrote during his journey from Malta via Palermo to Naples in the period 17.1. – 14.2.1797.
The travel journal is the only known diary from Thorvaldsen’s hand. It describes about one month of the sculptor’s life on his way from Malta to Naples during his long journey from Copenhagen to Rome 1796-97. He left Denmark 30.8.1796 on board the frigate Thetis and disembarked in Malta 18.12.1796. The Thetis was anchored here until 17.1.1797, when the ship and her crew took leave of Thorvaldsen. From this day the sculptor wrote a diary at regular intervals. The entries end 14.2.1797 during Thorvaldsen’s stay in Naples, but he remained in the city until 6.3., when he continued to Rome. The explanation of the end of the entries may be that the pages of the diary covering the last part of his stay in Naples have been lost.
The diary was found as loose sheets by Just Mathias Thiele among the artists’s papers in the summer of 1844 after his death, see Thiele I, p. 90.


The diary is very difficult to read, which is also noted by Thiele. The writing is small and indistinct in several places, and Thorvaldsen also uses very creative spellings due to his dyslexia, which has not been improved by his imperfect education.
Thiele published the diary in vol. I, p. 91-98, but his version is adapted orthographically, not complete, and also deciphered wrongly in some places. The present transcript is mainly based on an old typewritten transcript by Øjvind Andreasen c. 1950 in the archives of Thorvaldsen’s Museum. This copy has been compared with the original and with D.E. Rugaard’s transcript of 1922 in a fair copy by Vilhelm Marstrand, 1923, also in the museum archives.
Thorvaldsen’s spelling has been retained throughout as far as it has been possible to decipher it, for instance, it is difficult to distinguish between e and i. In the cases where the spelling makes the text difficult to understand, or where words or letters in a word are missing, the necessary additions have been made in modern Danish in square brackets. Thorvaldsen’s punctuation is also extremely liberal. In the places where a missing comma or full stop creates difficulties of reading and understanding, the necessary punctuation has been added in square brackets.

A draft exists of the entries for 16.-18.1.1797 (i.e. in reality 17.-19.1.1797). There are several linguistic differences between the draft and the present text, but the content is the same.

As the individual comments indicate, Thorvaldsen got the dates of the individual entries in the diary mixed up. This uncertainty about the dates and the fact that he wrote a draft of the diary show that he did not write in the finished diary nor in the draft every day but complied his material in larger installments at a time.
In other words, writing down his thought every day did not come naturally to Thorvaldsen. This strongly indicates that he had been asked to keep a diary, or perhaps, as a recipient of a royal travelling scholarship, he was expected to be able to account for – or maybe he was even obliged to take notes of – what he saw and experienced during his officially funded studies abroad.
Anyhow, Thorvaldsen soon abandoned his diary, probably because the difficulties of expressing himself in writing were too great.

Document Type

Færdigt egenhændigt dokument

Archival Reference

Arkivet, Thorvaldsens Museum

Thiele

Gengivet i tilrettet form hos Thiele I, p. 91-98

Other references

Subjects

Persons

Commentaries

  1. Thorvaldsen arrived in Malta 2.12.1796 on board the frigate Thetis, on which he had obtained a passage on his way from Copenhagen to Rome. The crew of the Thetis was quarantined by the Maltese authorities until 18.12.1796, when Thorvaldsen was able to go ashore.
    So he had been in Malta for almost a month when he started his diary, presumably because the Thetis left him “17.1.1797”:/kronologi/vis/1226 on the island, from where he was to proceed to Rome on his own.

  2. The date is wrong, it should be 17.1.1797 for two reasons:
    Firstly, the departure of the frigate Thetis for Tripoli 17.1.1797 was registered by the Maltese quarantine authorities as were all other departures from the port of Valetta, cf. documents in the National Archives of Malta, see Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 100.
    Secondly, in his diary dated January 17, the chaplain of the Thetis, Peder Pavels, describes Thorvaldsen’s leave-taking of the Thetis and her crew in the same way as Thorvaldsen does here, i.e. indicating the same hour and describing how emotional the parting was for Thorvaldsen. See Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit, p. 61.
    In the preserved draft of the beginning of the diary, the first entry is dated “23 Januarius”, so Thorvaldsen did not start writing the entries of the diary until a week later. This may explain why he mixed up the dates.
    The dates of January 17 and 18 have even been changed from January 18 and 19, which are the correct ones.

  3. The Danish frigate Thetis, which had transported Thorvaldsen from Copenhagen to Malta.

  4. Ordet til må være en fejl, som Thorvaldsen ikke har fået slettet.
    Kladden til denne passage har ikke helt samme ordlyd, og fejlen kan måske være opstået i overførslen af kladden til nærværende tekst.

  5. The Thetis was on a mission to Tripoli, read more about this here.

  6. Dvs. have ondt ved, at have vanskeligt ved, se betydningen 1.2. af ond i Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  7. I.e. the vice-consul in Malta, whose name was Felice. Thorvaldsen had met him several times during his stay on the island, see Pavels’ diary in Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 47 and 61.

  8. Dvs. båden.

  9. Pilot er et gammelt ord for lods, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  10. The captain of the boat which was to take Thorvaldsen from Malta to Palermo in Sicily was probably the Maltese Vincenzo Portelli according to documents in the National Archives of Malta, see more about this below in the commentary to “tomorrow” under 18.1. (i.e. 19.1.).

  11. A speronaro is a coasting vessel.
    Thorvaldsen had already arranged with captain of the boat that he could sail with them to Palermo. Peder Pavels’ diary of 29.12.1796 reads: “This afternoon came news that tomorrow there will be a chance for Thorvaldsen to go to Palermo on a Speronare.” (Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 55).
    However, he was not able to place his luggage in the speronaro until 11.1.1797 so that he was ready to leave if the weather suddenly turned good, see Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 60-61, which also mentions that for a while Thorvaldsen considered taking another speronaro directly to Naples, but this plan rejected.
    Concerning speronaroes, see Andreas Christian Gierlew: Breve over Italien og Sicilien paa en Rejse i Aarene 1803 og 1804, vol. 2, Copenhagen 1807, p. 234.

  12. The expression is unclear. It may be an abbreviation of some Italian words.
    Thorvaldsen writes no fors in the draft of the passage in the diary.

  13. The number 7 in 17 has been changed from an 8. The correct date is 18.1.1797, cf. the commentary on the 16th of January concerning the incorrect dates.

  14. Dvs. vækkede.
    Thorvaldsen har vel forvekslet verberne at vågne og at vække, som så i datid til blev til vågnede, der antagelig pga. af både ordblindhed og københavnsk sociolekt er blevet til vonnede.

  15. Hector was Thorvaldsen’s dog and travelling companion, probably acquired in Malta.

  16. Thorvaldsen’s luggage with his clothes had been placed in the speronaro on 11.1.1797 so that he was ready for speedy departure in case of good weather, see the commentary on the speronaro above.

  17. The Danish brig is presumably identical with the merchant vessel which according to Peder Pavels’ diary arrived in Malta 31.12.1796, see Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 56.

  18. Dvs. gik.
    Stavefejlen kunne igen at være et udslag af ordblindhed og lavkøbenhavnsk sociolekt, se mere om Thorvaldsens talte dansk her.

  19. Dvs. gjorde jagt.

  20. I.e. probably 19.1.1797.
    The 8 in 18 has been changed, probably from a 9, cf. the commentary on the 16th of January concerning the incorrect dates.

  21. Another Danish brig must have arrived in Malta.

  22. Dvs. i går.

  23. Dvs. kaptajnen.
    Her staver Thorvaldsen ordet på en ny måde i forhold til ovenfor. Igen synes man næsten at kunne høre den ordblinde billedhuggers københavner-dialekt i stavemåden, se mere om Thorvaldsens talte dansk her.

  24. Dvs. skikkelig.
    Stavemåden er antagelig igen et udslag af ordblindhed og lavkøbenhavnsk sociolekt, se mere om Thorvaldsens talte dansk her.

  25. This German, who had apparently deserted or run away, is unidentified.

  26. Dvs. chokolade.
    Stavemåden er antagelig igen et kreativt udslag af ordblindhed og lavkøbenhavnsk sociolekt, se mere om Thorvaldsens talte dansk her.

  27. Dvs. billard – i konteksten altså et sted, hvor der kunne spilles billard.

  28. This is presumably Jean-François Guillaumier, who was the Maltese pilot of French origin, who, among other things, sailed with the Thetis to Tripoli and was a guide and companion to Thorvaldsen, Peder Pavels and other members of the crew on board the Thetis during her stay in Malta. See Pavels’ diary in Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 36 (note 21), 48-51, 55.
    See the article about Guillaumier, ibid., p. 109-114. Guillaumier liked the tobacco mentioned by Thorvaldsen, see ibid. p. 111.

  29. Dvs. tobak. Tabak er en gammel staveform for tobak, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog. Thorvaldsen staver så tabak på sin egen facon, igen antagelig som følge af en lavkøbenhavnsk, fonetisk betinget stavemåde.

  30. Thorvaldsen stayed in so that the captain of the speronaro could find him in case the weather turned so good that the boat could leave, see Thiele I, p.78.

  31. I.e. 20.1.1797. As mentioned above, the first three days in the diary have been misdated one day early so that the day of Thorvaldsen’s departure from Malta was not “tomorrow” relative to 18.1.1797, but “tomorrow” relative to the day after, consequently 20.1.1797.

    Records in the National Archives of Malta, Magna Curia Castellania, Reg. Patentarum, where the Maltese authorities registered departures of ships from the port of Valletta, document that a speronaro captained by the Maltese Vincenzo Portelli sailed 20.1.1797. It must be assumed that Thorvaldsen was on board this boat even though the passenger list has not been checked, cf. journal no 13–2/2006.

    In Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 100, Michael Ellul refers to the same records and mentions a schifazzo, i.e. a different type of boat from a speronaro, as the boat that was said to have taken Thorvaldsen to Sicily 20.1.1797. Originally this boat was to have sailed 19.1.1797, but the note “rim[angon]o in terra” in the margin next to the schifazzo indicates that, because of bad weather, the boat did not leave for Mazara in Sicily until the next day, cf. journal no 13–2/2006.
    In this case, the passenger list has been checked, and according to the not particularly careful official who kept the register of departures, one of the nine passengers of the schifazzo was a 20- or 26-year-old Frenchman called “Bertino”. This could be a distortion of the strange Danish name of Bertel, and the fact that he was taken for a Frenchman might be because he was helped by the French pilot François, mentioned above.

    Whether Thorvaldsen sailed from Malta to Sicily in one boat or the other so far remains unclarified. However, as Thorvaldsen has no doubt that his boat is a speronaro – it is thus referred to four times in the diary –this possibility must be the most likely.

  32. 23.1.1797 was a Monday.

  33. Dvs. lidt.

  34. Thiele I, p. 78 calls Thorvaldsen’s contact in Palermo “Banquier Mathé”, presumably a firm of commercial bankers.
    So far Mathé has not been identified.

  35. This is presumably the Danish consul in Malta, Joseph Abela (Habela), see Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., e.g. p. 73, note 121.
    Thiele I, p. 76 and 78 mentions that Thorvaldsen got a letter of recommendation for Mathé from Captain Fisker of the Thetis and not from Consul Abela.

  36. Dvs. kommissionær.

  37. According to Thiele I, p. 78, this letter was also a letter of recommendation from Captain Fisker.

  38. Dvs. fuldmægtigen. Thorvaldsen staver ordet mere korrekt ovenfor.

  39. Probably the Flemish baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640). It has not been possible to identify what Rubens paintings Thorvaldsen saw in Palermo.

  40. The word is difficult to read.
    This cathedral has not been identified. The obvious possibility would be Cattedrale di Palermo, but that cannot be it partly because it does not contain any paintings by Vincenzo Manno, partly because Palermo Cathedral is mentioned below as one of the other churches that Thorvaldsen saw during his stay in Sicily.
    A very faint possibility could be Cattedrale di San Lorenzo in Trapani the ceiling of which has been decorated by Vicenzo Manno. Trapani, however, is about 100 kilometres west of Palermo, and nothing of what Thorvaldsen writes indicates that he has made such a journey.

  41. Based on the context, Thorvaldsen probably means it instead of I, which he wrote. The paragraph, however, is difficult to decipher.

  42. Dvs. sicilianer. Thorvaldsen gentager ordet, som han først gør halvt færdigt på én side. Derefter springer dagbogen til næste ark papir, hvorefter han forsøger at stave ordet en gang til. Han har tydeligvis haft svært ved at finde en passende stavning.

    Den staveform, Thorvaldsen beslutter sig for i sidste omgang, synes igen præget af hans københavnske dialekt og ordblindhed.

  43. The Italian painter Vincenzo Manno.

  44. Dvs. plafonden, i.e. loftsmaleriet i den pågældende kirke.

  45. Dvs. monument.
    Ombytningen af o og u og forglemmelsen af n’et synes at være karakteristiske tegn på ordblindhed.

  46. I.e. a painting of Mary Magdalene, so far unidentified.

  47. This must be the local Accademia di Belle Arti di Palermo, whose history goes back to 1783.

  48. Presumably the uniform of a Knight of Malta as suggested by the following.

  49. Presumably the Grand Master of the Order of Malta, Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc (1725-1797), see the next comment on the word church.

  50. Since Manno was honoured by the Grand Master of the Order of Malta for having decorated this church, it is probably St. Paul’s Cathedral at Mdina in Malta, where Manno and his brother (1739-1831) decorated part of the ceilings 1790-94.
    During his recent stay in Malta, Thorvaldsen had seen St. Paul’s Cathedral 26.12.1796, and he told Manno about his positive impression of the decoration, see Manno’s recommendation of 27.1.1797.
    Thorvaldsen’s visit to Mdina and the ceiling painting in the cathedral is mentioned in Peder Pavels’ diary, cf. Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 51.

  51. Probably a Knight of Malta because, like Thorvaldsen himself, he had arrived from Malta as appears below.
    Thiele I, p. 78 takes this to mean that the knight was on the same boat as Thorvaldsen. As mentioned above in the comment to tomorrow, the passenger list of the speronaro that conveyed Thorvaldsen from Malta to Sicily has not been checked in the National Archives of Malta.
    The passenger list of another possible means of transport – the schifazzo – does not seem to include a Knight of Malta, see Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 100.

  52. Dvs. tillige.

  53. The cathedral church that Thorvaldsen is referring to here, unlike the one mentioned above, is the Cattedrale di Palermo, which at this time was being rebuilt, as stated in the text.

  54. Possibly one of the churches that appear in Thorvaldsen’s list at the end of the diary.

  55. Regarding Thorvaldsen’s love of the dramatic arts, see Thorvaldsen and Theatre.

  56. Vincenzo Manno wrote the recommendation, still in existence, to his brother in Rome, the painter Francesco Manno.

  57. The packet boat that conveyed Thorvaldsen from Palermo to Naples.

  58. Dvs. besvær. Bogstavombytningen synes at være en karakteristisk ordblindefejl.

  59. Dvs. vrimmel.

  60. Dvs. passagerer.

  61. Det vil antagelig sige lagde, altså lå i hans køje

  62. Dvs. en sværm, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  63. 28.1.1797 was, quite correctly, a Saturday.

  64. Dvs. konvojere.

  65. The designation “Turks” was used indiscriminately about Turks, North Africans, and Muslims, see for instance Sørensen & Schirò, op. cit., p. 38 (note 22), where the designation is used about North Africans in Tripoli.
    The packet boat to Naples was apparently to be escorted because of the danger of being attacked by pirates. Regarding the threat of “Turkish” pirates, see for instance Andreas Christian Gierlew: Breve over Italien og Sicilien paa en Rejse i Aarene 1803 og 1804, vol. 2, Copenhagen 1807, p. 218.
    Thiele I, p. 82 also mentions the risk of piracy as the reason why the packet was escorted by a frigate.

  66. Dvs. vinden.

  67. Dvs. kontrær.

  68. Dvs. signal.

  69. Det vil antagelig sige signalerede.

  70. Dvs blev.
    Bogstavombytningen synes igen at være kendetegnende for Thorvaldsens ordblindhed.

  71. Dvs. vinden.

  72. Dvs. tænke.

  73. The above-mentioned frigate Thetis, which left Thorvaldsen in Malta.

  74. This entry in the diary has not been dated by Thorvaldsen.

  75. This entry in the diary has not been dated by Thorvaldsen.

  76. Dvs. kommers, halløj, spetakel, se betydning 2 af kommers i Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  77. Dvs. fruentimmere, som ifølge Ordbog over det danske Sprog i dialekter eller i vulgærsprog kunne staves/udtales fruentømmere, som Thorvaldsen skriver det her.
    Stavemåden synes altså at være endnu et bevis på billedhuggerens lavkøbenhavnske sociolekt.

  78. Dvs. smukkeste.
    Bemærk, at Thorvaldsen lige ovenfor har stavet smuk(k)e med k, men her straks slår over i en anden staveform.

  79. Thorvaldsen certainly understood and spoke German, see Thorvaldsen’s Spoken and Written Language.
    Therefore, the signification here is that Thorvaldsen is pleased to be able to use more than gestures and body language when communicating with the beauty.

  80. Dvs. passagerer.

  81. Dvs. sild.

  82. Thorvaldsen has not accounted for Tuesday 31.1.1797. The trip from Palermo to Naples may have lasted one more day since Thorvaldsen here seems quite certain of the date.
    However, as he did not write in the diary every day, and as he also dates the next day 1.2.1797 below, the most likely explanation seems to be that he has missed a day, and that his arrival in Naples is to be dated 31.1.1797.

  83. Dvs. klædte.

  84. A street in Naples.
    Thorvaldsen probably asked about this address because he had been recommended lodgings there.

  85. Dvs. traktørhus.

  86. Dvs. akkorderede, aftalte – i dette tilfælde aftalte prisen for kost og logi, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  87. I.e. the Neapolitan monetary unit, the carlino.

  88. Dvs. officerer.

  89. Dvs. hjem.

  90. Dvs. æresport, eller triumfport, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  91. Dvs. plafond, i.e. en malet loftsudsmykning.

  92. Dvs. paketten/paketbåden, som havde sejlet Thorvaldsen til Napoli fra Palermo.

  93. Dvs. måde, eller Maade, som man ville have skrevet dengang.

  94. Dvs. visitere – i dette tilfælde i betydningen toldbehandle.
    Se visitere i Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  95. Dvs. visiteres.

  96. Dvs. skulle.

  97. Dvs. læses.

  98. Thorvaldsen places the negation ‘ikke’ in such a way that he seems to say that his books were to be read through “to see if there weren’t any aristocratic books among them”, but the historical background suggests that the negation refers to the adjective aristocratic, i.e. non-aristocratic.
    The context was the following:
    In war-torn Europe, books could be perceived as contraband. When Thorvaldsen arrived in Naples, Napoleon’s troops were ravaging Northern Italy, and the Kingdom of Naples had already in 1793 joined the coalition against anti-royalist France but had bought peace in 1796. However, the situation was very tense, and therefore the Neapolitan authorities were particularly concerned about revolutionary, anti-royalist, and Francophile sympathizers. So, the signification of this passage in the diary must be that when the customs officers were to check Thorvaldsen’s books, it was to find out whether they were non-aristocratic or non-royalist, i.e. revolutionary from the point of view of the Kingdom of Naples.
    See also Thorvaldsen’s list of the books he had brought with him on his journey.

  99. As above, Thorvaldsen here dates the entry 1.2.1797. As mentioned in the comment above, the most likely interpretation is that this February 1st is correctly dated, while the 1.2. above is wrong and should be 31.1.
    This also agrees with the dating of the following entry, clearly marked “the 2nd of February”.

  100. The Danish minister in Naples was Edmund Bourke.

  101. Dvs. visitøren eller tolderen.

  102. I.e. the way to Edmund Bourke’s home.

  103. Thorvaldsen mener formodentlig kælling, altså den gamle kone, der nævnes ovenfor.

  104. The words are difficult to decipher.

  105. The expression may mean either ‘to communicate in German’ or ‘to speak incomprehensibly, see Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  106. Dvs. sagde.

  107. Dvs. gjorde.

  108. Dvs. snart, her i betydningen næsten, se betydning 4.1 og 4.2 af snart i Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  109. Dvs. sagde.

  110. See the list of Thorvaldsen’s books at the end of the diary. Probably a draft of the list here requested by Bourke, which Thiele I, p. 86 also assumes.

  111. Thiele I, p. 96 quite likely identifies this as the park and the promenade Villa Comunale – then the Villa Reale.
    See also Andreas Christian Gierlew: Breve over Italien og Sicilien paa en Rejse i Aarene 1803 og 1804, vol. 2, Copenhagen 1807, p. 200.

  112. Probably the marble sculpture The Farnese Bull, which until 1826 stood in the Villa Communale in Naples. It is now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples.

  113. Dvs. opera.

  114. The prinsess is unidentified, but it must be the one who arrived some days later, see entry dated 5.2.1797 below.

  115. Dvs. billet.

  116. Det vil antagelig sige sildig.

  117. Dvs. kirker. Stavemåden synes igen at være fonetisk og socialt betinget på Thorvaldsens karakteristiske vis.

  118. I.e. The Expulsion of Heliodorus from the Temple, probably Francesco Solimena’s (1657–1747) painting, 1725, in Gesù Nuovo.
    Thorvaldsen himself had used the subject in the relief for which, in 1791, he got the small gold medal of the Academy, Heliodorus Driven out of the Temple, A829.

  119. The German painter Wilhelm Tischbein, who was director of the art academy in Naples 1789-99.

  120. The Danish count Jørgen Scheel.
    See Hugo Matthiessen: En Greve. Jørgen Scheel til Grevskabet Scheel, Stamhuset Gl. Estrup samt Ulstrup (1768-1825), Copenhagen 1954, p. 85: “On the 3rd of February 1797, Scheel writes [in his diary] that on that day, he went to dinner at the house of Minister Bourke and met ‘a Danish sculptor by the name of Tauleson’, adding by way of a short description ‘vulgar’.”

  121. I.e. Tischbein and not Count Scheel, as one would immediately think. The entry of the next day shows that Thorvaldsen accepted the invitation and visited Tischbein’s studio.

  122. En skolar er en elev.

  123. To the usually laconic Thorvaldsen, “rather good” seems great praise.
    Thorvaldsen was so impressed by Tischbein’s works that he mentioned the works to, among others, Carl Ludwig Fernow, whom he met immediately after his arrival in Rome 8.3.1797. See letter of 11.3.1797 in Carl Ludwig Fernow: Römische Briefe an Johann Pohrt 1793-1798, Berlin 1944, p. 214.

  124. The museum Palazzo degli Studi, which contained antique sculptures and objects from the excavations of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Today it is the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples. Mentioned Thiele I, p. 87.

  125. Dvs. ind.

  126. Dvs. antikker, altså antikke skulpturer.

  127. I.e. the marble sculpture the Farnese Hercules, now in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples.

  128. Dvs. kavaj, overfrakke.

  129. Presumably Thorvaldsen is here referring to the rebuilding of the Palazzo degli Studi at the end of the 1700s, which was why he did not see it completed.

  130. Dvs. vil.

  131. I.e. the German glass dealer, as appears from the following.

  132. Dvs. ind.

  133. Dvs. lidt.

  134. I.e. prostitutes, as shown by the reaction of Thorvaldsen’s German companion.
    In one of his letters from the same year,
    Thorvaldsen’s father wrote a warning to his son: “For God’s sake, be careful in the temple of Venus …”.

  135. Dvs. spurgte.

  136. Presumably the Duomo di Napoli.

  137. According to Thiele I, p. 88 and 97, this is the then relatively recently built royal summer residence, Reggia di Portici from 1750 in the town of Portici just outside Naples at the foot of Mount Vesuvius. One of the wings of the palace contained the royal collection of antiques found at Herculaneum and Pompeii.

  138. The word is difficult to decipher, but it is probably riding.
    This is undoubtedly the two antique equestrian statues of Balbus the Younger and Balbus the Elder. They were found at Herculaneum in 1746 and c. 1747 respectively. They were both placed in the courtyard of the royal summer residence at Portici. In 1813 they were moved to the Museo Borbonico, now the Museo Nazionale in Naples, see Francis Haskell & Nicholas Penny: Taste and the Antique: The Lure of Classical Sculpture, 1500-1900, New Haven & London 1981, p. 158.
    During his later visit to Naples, September – October 1818 Thorvaldsen drew sketches of the two equestrian statues, C257r.

  139. Dvs. illumination.
    Igen et eksempel på Thorvaldsens karakteristiske blanding af ordblindhed og lavkøbenhavnsk, jf. kommentarer ovenfor.

  140. I.e. the imperial princess mentioned above. So far she has not been identified.

  141. Dvs. ankomst.

  142. I.e. Edmund Bourke.

  143. The royal collections in the Palazzo Reale di Capodimonte, today the Museo di Capodimonte.
    As appears in the following, Thorvaldsen must have had an appointment with Bourke and Tischbein to visit the museum together.

  144. I.e. Bourke

  145. Dvs. galleriet.

  146. Mr. Andre / Andrea, mentioned below. Thorvaldsen writes both, and Thiele has chosen the Italian sounding Andrea, see Thiele I, p. 88and 98.

  147. Ovennævnte Palazzo degli Studi.

  148. Regarding Thorvaldsen’s love of the dramatic arts, see Thorvaldsen and Theatre.

  149. By using the word sent Thorvaldsen may also indicate that the opera lasted as long (as the last time), i.e. until late

  150. That is the Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte.

  151. I.e. Andre / Andrea, with whom Thorvaldsen had made an appointment the day before.

  152. The Italian painter Raphael (1483-1520), Thorvaldsen’s great artistic idol, see e.g. Chris Fischer: ‘Thorvaldsen og Rafael’, in: Meddelelser fra Thorvaldsens Museum 2008, p. 11-42.

  153. Dvs. hurtigt, hastigt, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  154. Must be identical with “Mr. Andre”, the attendant or guide at the Capodimonte.

  155. Dvs. menageriet, egentlig en samling af dyr, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  156. 12.2.1797 was indeed a Sunday.

  157. I.e. the German glsass dealer, whom Thorvaldsen met 1.2.1797, see above.

  158. As Thorvaldsen mentions a porcelain figure, it is undoubtedly the famous porcelain factory Real Fabbrica di Capodimonte, which was founded in 1743. Among other things, the factory produced porcelain sculptures, which explains Thorvaldsen’s interest.

  159. Det vil antagelig sige smuk.

  160. Dvs. gruppe, her en skulpturgruppe.

  161. This is most likely the porcelain sculpture group Caduta dei Giganti (The Fall of the Giants) by the Italian sculptor Filippo Tagliolini (1745-1809), who worked at the porcelain factory Real Fabbrica di Capodimonte from 1781. The group is made of porcelain, is 162 cm tall, and today is at the Museo di Capodimonte (inv.no. 515).
    Tagliolini worked on the sculpture for a number of years from 1787, and in 1799 it was still in the factory, see Alvar González-Palacios: Lo scultore Filippo Tagliolini e la Porcellana di Napoli, Torino 1988, p. 164, cat.no. 39.

  162. Dvs. porcelæn, se Ordbog over det danske Sprog.

  163. The figure has been changed, so it may have been 17, which suggests that Thorvaldsen has written this later and not been entirely sure of the date.
    See also the addition between the lines below.

  164. The Danish consul in Naples, Christian Heigelin, who was German.

  165. Heigelin’s art collection was well-known, and the most famous work was Wilhelm Tischbein’s portrait of Goethe in the Campagna, 1787.

  166. 14.2.1797 was a Tuesday. This mistake also suggests that Thorvaldsen wrote these lines some days after the events took place.

  167. This is probably the engraver to the Neapolitan Court, the German Georg Hackert (1755-1805), brother of the court painter in the same place Philipp Hackert (1737-1807). Both knew Consul Heigelin.
    See Jürg Arnold: Christian Heigelin (1744-1820). Bäckersohn aus Stuttgart, Bankier in Neapel, Freimaurer, Vermittler italienischer Kultur, Ostfildern 2012, p. 21, who also thinks that the engraver Thorvaldsen met was Georg Hackert.
    See also Hugo Matthiessen: En Greve. Jørgen Scheel til Grevskabet Scheel, Stamhuset Gl. Estrup samt Ulstrup (1768-1825), Copenhagen 1954, p. 85.

  168. This seems to be a new, undated entry in the diary rather than a continuation of the above, as Thorvaldsen starts his last entries “today”.
    However, these last lines in the diary have probably been written down some days later; Thorvaldsen has even skipped some days; and the entries are becoming shorter and shorter. All this is an indication that Thorvaldsen has gradually yielded to the difficulties he had writing at all and thus abandoned the diary in the middle of his stay in Naples, which he did not leave until 6.3.1797.

  169. I.e. Edmund Bourke.

  170. This is probably the list of the books that were seized by the Neapolitan customs officers 31.1.1797, as mentioned above.
    The Danish minister Bourke asked Thorvaldsen to compile this list, see 1.2.1797 above.

  171. This is undoubtedly Thorvaldsen’s own album, which today is in Thorvaldsens Museum, N213.
    The album contains several entries by people who had travelled with Thorvaldsen to Malta on board the frigate Thetis.
    See the related article about Thorvaldsen’s Album.

  172. Dvs. grammatik.

  173. Gottlob Friedrich Krebel (1729-1793) published accounts of journeys to several European destinations in several impressions in the second half of the 1700s.
    Thorvaldsen may have brought along with him 2 volumes of Die vornehmsten Europäischen Reisen, wie solche durch Deutschland, die Schweitz, die Niederlande, England, Portugall, Spanien, Frankreich, Italien, Dännemark, Schweden, Ungarn, Polen, Preussen und Russland anzustellen sind, Hamburg 1792-96.
    However, these books by Krebel are not in Thorvaldsen’s book collection today; they were sold at the auction of his belongings 5.10.1849 at Thorvaldsens Museum, cat. no 774-776.

  174. I.e. the Danish writer Jens Baggesen’s: Labyrinten, in two volumes, 1792-93.
    These are still in Thorvaldsen’s book collection, M694, signed P. Pavels and P. Pawels respectively.
    It is therefore likely that Thorvaldsen received the two volumes as a farewell gift from his good friend, the chaplain on board the Thetis, Peder Pavels, when they parted in Malta 17.1.1797.
    As appears from the list, Thorvaldsen took the volumes with him to Rome, and they returned to Denmark when Thorvaldsen came back 17.9.1838.

    The outer framework of Labyrinten is an account of a journey through Germany, France, and Switzerland. Therefore, it has not been of much use to Thorvaldsen in Italy. He must have chosen to keep the pioneer novel throughout his life simply because he was particularly fond of it.

  175. According to Thiele I, p. 86 this should be deciphered as Stærkodder, i.e. the legendary hero in Old Norse mythology, also known as Starkad. This is most likely the writer C. Pram’s mock-heroic poem Stærkodder. Et digt i femten sange, Copenhagen 1785. Thorvaldsen knew Pram and had drawn a portrait of him which in 1795 was engraved by Andreas Flint, E2299. The drawing is in a private collection.

    Today Pram’s heroic poem is in Thorvaldsen’s book collection, M718. It was given to Thorvaldsen by Eiler Hagerup Schiøtz, probably as a farewell gift when the two friends parted in Copenhagen before Thorvaldsen’s departure 30.8.1796. See Schiøtz’ dedication in the book.


    Stærkodder is bound with the same leather back as Labyrinten, which is also on the list of the books that Thorvaldsen brought along on the journey.
    So, both books made the journey from Copenhagen to Rome via Malta and Naples in 1796-97. And in 1838 they were probably brought back to Copenhagen.

  176. This is probably August von Kotzebue’s novel Ildegerte, Königin von Norwegen. Historische Novelle, 1788, translated into Danish Ildegerte, Dronning i Norge en historisk Novelle by P.D. Faber 1791.
    Thorvaldsen probably brought along the Danish edition, cf. Thiele I, p. 207, which is no longer in Thorvaldsen’s book collection because it was sold at the auction of his belongings, cat. no 1007.
    Thiele I, p. 86 renders the title as Ildegerda.

  177. One of these books is unidentified, but as far as the other one is concerned, a letter from the art critic Carl Ludwig Fernow to his friend Johann Pohrt (1771-1834) from the end of December 1796 mentions that Thorvaldsen was to bring Immanuel Kant’s: Zum ewigen Frieden. Ein Philosophischer Entwurf, Königsberg 1795.
    See Carl Ludwig Fernow: Römische Briefe an Johann Pohrt 1793-1798, Berlin 1944, p. 175: “Der Däne, der mir den ewigen Frieden bringen soll, ist aber noch nicht angekommen.”
    It must be assumed that Fernow had been able to bring about this agreement through the Danish archaeologist Georg Zoëga’s contact with the Danish Academy of Fine Arts. Cf. Rainer Schoch: ‘Rom 1797 – Frihedens tilflugtssted’, in: B. Jørnæs et al. (ed.): Kunst og liv i Thorvaldsens Rom, Thorvaldsens Museum 1992, p. 9.

  178. Probably the frigate Thetis’ ship’s secretary H.A. Schmidt’s diary of the journey from Copenhagen to Malta. The diary was only kept until 17.12.1796 and must have been given to Thorvaldsen when he left the frigate the next day. Cf. also Thiele I, p. 53.
    Later Thorvaldsen used the diary as a sketchbook, cf. the many figure drawings at the back of the book. In 1838, Thorvaldsen gave the diary to Thiele, and now it is in the Thorvaldsens Museum archives. Thiele’s account of the frigate’s journey from Copenhagen to Malta is based on this diary, see Thiele I, p. 55-69.

  179. It is not known what letters Thorvaldsen is referring to; nor is it known whether he had received any letters from Denmark as early as January 1797, when this list was written.
    Thorvaldsen did not receive a letter of 1.11.1796 from Gotskalk Thorvaldsen until June 1797 in Rome. It had been sent from Malta by the chaplain of the Thetis, Peder Pavels, together with a letter from Pavels himself of 21.5.1797.
    They could also be letters that Thorvaldsen himself had brought along on the journey.

  180. The word is difficult to decipher. It could also be ‘good’.

  181. This list, so far unnoticed, seems to contain the names of objects of interest which Thorvaldsen may have seen on his journey.
    The first name on the list is probably from Malta, the last very likely from Naples. The list, then, contains objects of interest visited during the entire period covered by the diary.

  182. Although the first word is difficult to decipher, there is no doubt that the second word is Medina. This is most likely the old town of Mdina in Malta, which Thorvaldsen visited 26.12.1796.

  183. The word is difficult to decipher in the context. Thorvaldsen may mean: Religious building (Geist[lige] = spiritual), followed by the ones he has seen of that kind.

  184. Unidentified. The last word obviously refers to a cathedral, possibly Valetta’s Co-Cathedral if the word douduomo (duo-duomo?) has anything to do with this.

  185. Unidentified.

  186. I.e. Obelisco di San Gennaro, also called Guglia di San Gennaro, a baroque obelisk erected 1636 in the centre of Naples. It is crowned with a statue of the patron saint of Naples, S. Gennaro.

  187. San Domenico Soriano is a baroque church in Naples. Built in several stages in the 1600s and the 1700s. Richly decorated interior.

  188. Gesù Nuovo is a baroque church and the more recent Jesuit church in Naples.
    Thorvaldsen visited the church 2.2.1797, see the entry for this date, where he mentions a painting in the church by Francesco Solimena.

  189. Gesù Vecchio, the old Jesuit church in Naples.

  190. S Giovanni a Carbonara is a late Gothic church in Naples.

  191. Maybe the word should be read differently. If, indeed, it says church, this has so far not been identified.

  192. The church has not been identified, possibly the Basilica della Ss. Annunziata Maggiore in Naples.

  193. Probably the famous Basilica di Santa Chiara in Naples, a medieval church with a baroque interior from the 1700s.

  194. Not identified. There are at least five churches dedicated to S. Guiseppe in Naples alone.

  195. Not identified. There is no Neapolitan church by that name. It may refer to the statue of S. Gaetano in the Piazza San Gaetano in Naples.

  196. The church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Naples, where Thorvaldsen’s statue of Conradin, A150, was erected on Conradin’s tomb in 1847.

  197. Probably the early Christian Catacombe di San Gennaro in Naples.

Last updated 28.10.2015